Individuals with attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), any subtype, may experience any of the limitations discussed below. The degree of limitation will vary among individuals. Not all students with ADHD will need CAMS (compensations
accommodations, modifications, strategies) to perform in school and many others may only need a few CAMS. Regardless, each
student’s case should be evaluated on an individual basis with an Independent Needs Assessment Protocol done by an Educational
Strategist & Consultant or a Special Educational Needs Consultant (SEN). The
following is a sample of possible CAMS for students with ADHD. Other CAMS solutions
may exist so check with an Educational Strategist & Consultant or Special Educational Needs Consultant (SEN) for more
1. What limitations the student with ADHD is experiencing?
2. How these limitations affect the student and the student's school performance?
3. What specific activities or tasks are problematic as a result of these limitations?
4. What CAMS are available to
reduce or eliminate these problems?
5. Are all possible resources being used to determine possible CAMS?
6. Has the student with ADHD been consulted regarding possible CAMS? Does the student know how s/he learns best?
7. Once CAMS are in place, would it be useful to talk with the student and/or team to
evaluate the effectiveness of the CAMS and to determine whether additional or different CAMS are needed?
8. Do parents and school staff need training regarding ADHD?
9. Schedule time to meet with the Educational
Strategist & Consultant or Special Educational Needs Consultant (SEN) to determine how to communicate needed CAMS with
the school team and how to document.
Students with ADHD may have difficulty communicating with peers or staff. For students
with ADHD, poor communication may be the result of underdeveloped social skills, lack of experience/exposure in the school
environment, shyness, intimidation, behavior disorders, or low self-esteem.
help facilitate communication, provide advance notice of topics to be discussed in class
To reduce or eliminate
anxiety, provide advance notice of date of activities when student is required to speak
Allow student to provide
written response in lieu of verbal response
reduce or eliminate the feeling of intimidation, allow student to have a friend or classmate speak with him
Organizational Skills: A student with ADHD
may have difficulty getting organized or staying organized.
student reduce and learn how to reduce clutter in his/her work area
Utilize a professional
organizer to teach the student
color-code system to label or identify materials
calendars (paper, electronic, or both) to remind of deadlines, activities, projects, and other upcoming tasks
skills by attending time management workshops, like those offered by Franklin Covey
skills through online self-education sites
non-stressful "catch up" time into school week or school day
Memory: A student with ADHD could have
memory deficits that affect the ability to recall something that is seen or heard. This may result in an inability to recall
facts, names, rules, and other pertinent information, even if such information is used regularly.
checklists to help remember tasks and activities
flowchart to describe steps to a task (such as responding in class, turning in homework)
lists of crucial information such as in poster format around the classroom
Prompt student with
verbal, non-verbal, or written cues
student to use voice activated recorder to record verbal instructions
instruction time on new information or tasks
refresher instruction as needed
Time Management: A student with ADHD may
have difficulty managing time. This can affect the student’s ability to organize or prioritize tasks, adhere to deadlines,
maintain productivity standards, or work efficiently.
to-do lists and check items off as they are completed
calendars to mark important meetings or deadlines
large assignments into smaller tasks and goals
student how to divide large assignments into smaller tasks and goals
Frequently remind student
in a variety of ways of important tasks, expectations, or deadlines
Social Skills: Students with ADHD may have
difficulty exhibiting appropriate social skills in one or more settings. This may be the result of underdeveloped social skills,
lack of experience/exposure, shyness, intimidation, behavior disorders, or low self-esteem. This can affect the
student's ability to adhere to conduct standards, work effectively with teachers, or interact
with peers or family.
Behavior at school:
reduce incidents of inappropriate behavior, thoroughly review and instruct on school rules with the student Do not penalize during
the learning curve
concrete examples to explain inappropriate behavior
concrete examples to explain results of inappropriate behavior
reinforce appropriate behavior, recognize and reward appropriate behavior, in an appropriate manner
Working effectively with staff:
detailed day-to-day guidance and feedback
clear expectations and the results of not meeting expectations
assignments verbally, in writing, or both, depending on what would be most beneficial to the student
Establish long term
and short term goals for the student
supervisory method by modifying the manner in which conversations take place, meetings are conducted, or discipline is addressed
training to promote disability awareness
Interacting with peers:
sensitivity training to promote disability awareness
feasible, allow student to work at home or in an alternate environment
student "learn the ropes" by providing a mentor or coach
accommodations for attendance or participation under specific circumstances
Allow student flexibility
to transfer to another group or seating area
Situations and Solutions:
For lecture setting:
hard copies of notes for student to follow along
student use a tape recorder or micro recorder
of a laptop or similar device
a quieter, less distracting seating
a detailed syllabus to give student ample time to prepare and complete assignments
For test taking:
responses orally to a proctor or tape record
Use environmental soothers
or white noise to cover noise of surroundings
visual and auditory distractions
use an electronic aid or non-verbal cue to remind student to get back on task
Allow short movement